Red Wine Extract: - See Polyphenols.
Riboflavin (B2): - This vitamin helps maintain healthy mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, circulatory, and excretory tracts (when used in conjunction with vitamin A). It preserves the integrity of the nervous system, skin, and eyes.
Rosemary Extract: - This plant extract has been shown to be helpful for arthritic and/or nerve pain and improving cardiovascular health. It has also demonstrated antibacterial, astringent, and decongestive properties.
Rutin: - A type of bioflavonoid that supports the immune system.
Saw Palmetto: - This herb has immunostimulant and expectorant properties, is a mucous membrane tonic, and has been proven as effective as conventional medications in treatment of enlarged prostate.
Sea Cucumber powder: - This powder derived from a marine animal is a rich source of chondroitin, minerals, and vitamins A, C, B1, B2, and B3, and has been shown to be useful for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatism, and most inflammatory, muscoskeletal conditions.
Selenium: - This mineral complements vitamin E to act as an efficient antioxidant. It is a component of an antioxidant enzyme, and also promotes normal growth and development.
Silicon: - This nutrient is necessary for collagen formation in cartilage, bones, and other connective tissues.
Shark Cartilage: - Cartilage provides natural sulfates like chondroitin and collagen to help protect existing joint tissue while also facilitating the creation of new cartilage. Shark cartilage is also an immune stimulant.
Spearmint Oil: - This oil helps dispel intestinal gas.
Stinging Nettles: - This herb has anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, and antirheumatic properties. It is also an expectorant and immune-system stimulant, and has been found to be useful for allergies, arthritis, urinary tract infections, and enlarged prostate gland.
Taurine: - Taurine is the primary amino acid building block for other amino acids, and is necessary for the proper processing of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. It is important in the formation of bile, and is also a component of white blood cells, skeletal and heart muscles, and central nervous system tissues.
Thiamin (B1): - This vitamin plays an essential role in carbohydrate metabolism, and therefore helps promote normal growth and development. It is also helps to maintain normal function of the nervous system, muscles, and heart, as well as helping to maintain mucous membranes.
Tocotrienols: - Tocotrienols are a special form of vitamin E that act as an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, which is the enzyme that produces cholesterol in the liver.